Contemporary Technology


The present ICT-based tools and technologies which provide faster and efficient data management and other modern services are known as contemporary technology. Contemporary Technologies offers companies a high-quality solution for database management that helps companies lower their IT costs while realizing corporate-wide efficiency gains. These efficiency gains help companies be more productive and drive revenues up. Some of the common and popular contemporary technologies are discussed below.

Contemporary Technology


Electronic business (e-Business) is the administration of conducting business via the Internet. This would include the buying and selling of goods and services, along with providing technical or customer support through the Internet. E-Business is a term often used in conjunction with e-commerce but includes services in addition to the sale of goods. It is the exchange of goods and services by means of the Internet or other computer networks. It is one of the important applications of ICT that supports all the activities of the business.
There are 6 basic types of e-business:
  • Business-to-Business (B2B)
  • Business-to-Consumer (B2C)
  • Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C)
  • Consumer-to-Business (C2B)
  • Business-to-Administration (B2A)
  • Consumer-to-Administration (C2A)


E-commerce (electronic commerce or EC) is the buying and selling of goods and services or the transmitting of funds or data, over an electronic network, primarily the internet. The terms e-commerce and e-business are often used interchangeably. The term e-tail is also sometimes used in reference to transactional processes for online shopping.
E-commerce follows the same basic principles as traditional commerce that is, buyers and sellers, come together to exchange goods for money. E-commerce offers buyers convenience.
They can visit the World Wide Web (WWW) sites of multiple vendors 24 hours a day and seven days a week to compare prices and make purchases, without having to leave their homes or offices. In the week to compare prices and make purchases, without having to leave their homes or offices. In some cases, consumers can immediately obtain a product or service, such as an electronic book, a music file, or computer software, by downloading it over the Internet.
Business-to-Business represents one of the fastest-growing segments of e-commerce. Businesses order supplies and coordinate complicated projects electronically. For example, construction companies use e-commerce to order construction materials and coordinate the work of subcontractors. Before e-commerce to order construction materials and coordinate the work of subcontractors. Before e-commerce, this work was conducted via telephone, facsimile, and regular mail. Subcontractors often lost time waiting for necessary parts to arrive or for automatically track the inventors of manufactures and suppliers so that both have adequate supplies on hand and no longer need to have excess inventories. Reducing inventories enables both manufactures and suppliers to lower costs. The labor-intensive method of printing and then faxing or mailing purchase orders can also be avoided because software can create purchase orders and send them electronically.


E-Learning comprises all forms of electronically supported learning and teaching. The information and communication systems, whether networked or not, serve as specific media to implement the learning process. The term will still most likely be utilized to reference out-of-classroom and in-classroom educational experiences via technology, even as advances continue in regard to devices and curriculum.
E-Learning is essentially the computer and network-enabled transfer of skills and knowledge. E-learning applications and processes include Web-based learning, computer-based learning, virtual classroom opportunities, and digital collaboration. Content is delivered via the Internet, intranet/ extranet, audio or videotape, satellite TV, and CD-ROM. It can be self-paced or instructor-led and includes media in the form of text, image, animation, streaming video, and audio.

Advantages of E-learning

E-learning has more advantages than traditional classroom systems. Some key benefits are listed below:
  • Faster Delivery: A key advantage of e-learning is that it has quicker delivery cycle times than traditional classroom-based instruction. In fact, research indicates that e-learning reduces learning time by at least 25 to 60 percent when compared to traditional learning. E-learning cuts down on the training time required.
  • Lower Costs: Because of the speed and ease in which e-learning is delivered, the costs of learning and development for an organization are drastically reduced. There are the immediate cost-effective gains of e-learning in terms of reducing training time as well as cost-effective savings in terms of trainers, course materials, travel, and accommodation. However, it is equally important to highlight that e-learning, when done right, can also improve an organization’s profitability.
  • More Effective Learning: The research has found that e-learning is found more effective and popular among the learners in comparison to the traditional learning system. The e-learning has a better attitude toward the e-learning format and training in general and it improves scores on tests, certifications, or other evaluations.
  • Lower Environmental Impact: The key areas in which e-learning lowers an organization’s environmental impact are as follows:
    a. Cuts down on the travel and accommodation costs associated with undertaking a course.
    b. Reduces the need for a campus site and the accompanying costs of maintaining the facility and equipment.
    c. Eliminates the need for paper, thus saving trees.

Types of E-Learning

There are different types of e-learning. Some of them are listed below.
  • Computer-Based Learning (CBL)
  • Web-Based Learning (WBL)
  • Internet-Based Learning (IBL)
  • Distance Learning
  • Learning with open universities
  • Online learning through universities websites.


E-Medicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996 by Scott Plantz and Richard Lavely, two medical doctors. Some of the uses of e-medicine are:
  • Telemedicine
  • Virtual surgery
  • Wellness Valley
  • Health Net
E-medical can be an effective mode of health service in developing countries like Nepal. People of remote or hilly areas, where transportation service is very poor, get highly benefited from e-Medicine. The patients get connected to the doctor through various modes on the Internet such as video conferencing. The doctor can ask questions to the patients in real-time. Doctors can post questions in a medical discussion forum; other doctors can replay the question and share their experiences. Nowadays we can find different websites which give health tips to the visitors. User can post their health problems and they are answered by the specialist. Today we can get various health tips on our mobile phones which is also a good example of e-medicine.

Virtual Reality

Virtual reality (VR) is an artificial environment created by using computer hardware and software to present any information in such a way that it seems real. It is the term that applies to computer-simulated environments that can simulate physical presence in places in the real world, as well as in imaginary worlds. Most current virtual reality environments are primarily visual experiences, displayed either on a computer screen or through special stereoscopic displays, but some simulations include additional sensory information, such as sound through speakers or headphones. Virtual reality is often used to describe a wide variety of applications commonly associated with immersive, highly visual, 3D environments.
On a computer, virtual reality is primarily experienced through two of the five senses: sight and sound. The simplest form of virtual reality is a 3-D image that can be explored interactively at a personal computer, usually by manipulating keys or the mouse so that the content of the image moves in some direction or zooms in or out. More sophisticated efforts involve such approaches as wrap-around display screens, actual rooms augmented with wearable computers, and hepatics devices that let you feel the display images.
Virtual reality can be divided into:
  • The simulation of a real environment for training and education.
  • The development of an imagined environment for a game or interactive story.


Robotics is the branch of computer technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, structural disposition, manufacture, and application of robots. Robotics is related to the sciences of electronics, engineering, mechanics, and software. It is concerned with building robot programmable devices consisting of mechanical actuators and sensory organs that are linked to a computer. A robot is somewhat similar to a human being. They have motors, a sensor system, a power supply, and a computer to control. They can do high-risk and typical jobs which are difficult for human beings. They are used in surgery, aircraft, weapon laboratory, and various scientific applications. These technologies in robotics deal with automated machines (robots for short) that can take the place of humans in dangerous environments or manufacturing processes, or resemble humans in appearance, behavior, and or congition. Many of today’s robots are inspired by nature, contributing to the field of bio-inspired robotics.

Application of Robotics

  • Robotics in Space
  • Robotics in Underwater
  • Electric Mobility
  • Logistics, Production, and Consumer (LPC)
  • Search and Rescue (SAR) & Security Robotics
  • Assistance- and Rehabilitation Systems
  • Robotics in Agricultural Sector.

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