Elements of Database and DBMS

In this blog, we are about to discuss basic elements of databases like a field, record, column, etc., and Database Management System(DBMS).  Before continuing to today’s topic, if you don’t know or want to learn about databases and database terminologies, then read about the topic before or after reading this post.

Basic elements of Database

The following are the basic elements of the database:
  • Field: The field in the database is the topic name or heading under which a similar kind of information is stored. It is also known as a single component or unit that describes the records. Example Name, Age, Address, Phone number, etc.
  • Record: The records in the database os pieces of information about any person, organization, or place. It is also known as a group of similar data related to a particular field. Example Mohan, 15, Butwal, 9812345678.
  • Column: Column is also known as the field of the database because they are managed vertically in the database. Generally, fields are presented column-wise on the database.
  • Row: Row is the collection of records that are managed vertically in the database. The row-wise collection of data is also considered a tuple.
  • Entity: An entity is a single person, place, or thing about which data can be stored. In data modeling (a first step in the creation of a database), an entity is some unit of data that can be classified and have stated relationships to other entities.
  • Attribute: An attribute may describe a component of the database, such as a table, or a field, or maybe used itself as another term for a field. In a database management system (DBMS), an attribute refers to a database component, such as a table. It also may refer to a database field. Attributes describe the instances in the row of a database.
  • File: A file in a database system is the collection of identical records in an entity set and labeled to identify the entity sets. It is also the integration of fields, records, entities, etc. in a systematic way with the unique names stored in the database for specific purposes.
  • Relationship: Relationships allow relational databases to split and store data in different tables while linking disparate data items.
  • Table: Table is the matrix or grid of rows and columns in the database. A database table consists of related records for one specific type of information. It is a container of all the data in any database. A table is also considered as a set of data elements (values) using a model of vertical columns (identifiable by name) and horizontal rows, the cell being the unit where a row and column intersect. A table has a specified number of columns but can have any number of rows.
  • Database Systems: A database system is a technique or procedure of collecting, keeping, and manipulating common information under certain topics with the help of a software package. There are various Data Base Management Software used to handle the database system properly.

Database Management System (DBMS)

A database management system (DBMS) is a collection of programs that enables you to store, modify, and extract information from a database. It is a set of software programs that are used to manage the data stored in a database. It is popularly used as an interface between database and user for creating, editing, updating, and organizing data in database files. Generally, DBMS is used to store, access, and process data or facts to obtain useful information. The primary objective of a DBMS is to provide a convenient environment to retrieve and store database information. Some examples of Data Base Management systems are listed below.
  1. dBase
  2. Foxbase
  3. Foxpro
  4. MS-Access
  5. Oracle
  6. MY SQL
  7. Sybase
Basic elements of database and DBMS || Database Management System

Advantages of Data Base Management System

  • It reduces data redundancy.
  • It guarantees the consistency of the data.
  • It allows sharing of data among different users and programs.
  • It provides data security and privacy.
  • It makes data available to different users.

Disadvantages of Database Management System

  • The initial setup cost of hardware and software is expensive.
  • Qualified personnel is required to use DBMS.
  • Difficult to recover data backup in DBMS system.

The objective of DBMS (Database Management System)

In the database-oriented of organized data, data from multiple related fields are integrated together in the form of a database, which has the following objectives.
  1. Provides greater query flexibility.
  2. Provides for mass storage of relevant data.
  3. Reduces data redundancy.
  4. Solves data integrity (inconsistency) problems.
  5. Provides data security features at the database level, a record level, etc.
  6. Allows multiple users to be active at a time for accessing data.
  7. Makes data independent of the application programs.
  8. Provides prompt response to a user requests for data.
  9. Allows updating a large volume of data at a time.

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