Computer Architecture

Hello friends, in this article you will get to know about different topics which include computer architecture and organization (COA) and also components of Computer systems. This topic is one of the most important topics required for computer science.

Concept of Computer Architecture and Organization

The term computer is used to describe a device made up of a combination of electronic and electromechanical (electronic and mechanical) components. By itself, a computer has no intelligence and is referred to as hardware, which means simply physical equipment. A computer can’t be used until it is connected to other parts of a computer system and software is installed.
The design, arrangement, construction, or organization of the different parts of a computer system is known as Computer architecture. It is the conceptual design and fundamental operational structure of a computer system. It is the conceptual design and fundamental operational structure of a computer system. It is the conceptual design and fundamental operational structure of a computer system. It is a framework and functional description of requirements and design implementations for the various parts of a computer, focusing largely on the way by which the central processing unit (CPU) performs internally and accesses addresses in memory. It may also be defined as the science and art of selecting, interconnecting hardware components to create computers to meet functional performance and cost.
Computer organization refers to the operational units and their interconnections that realize architecture specifications. Computer organization deals with physical aspects of computer design, memory, and their types as well as the microprocessor design.

Components of Computer System

A computer system consists of the following components:
  1. Input hardware
  2. Output hardware
  3. Processing hardware
  4. Storage (Main Memory/ Auxiliary Storage) hardware

Input Hardware

Most computes cannot accept data in forms similar to human communication such as speech or hand-written documents. It is necessary to present data to the computer in a way that produces easy conversion into its own electronic, pulse-based form. This is commonly achieved by typing that data into a keyboard device that converts it into a machine-sensible form. A keyboard device is just one of many kinds of input devices. In some cases, machine-readable documents or media are produced as part of the input process.

Output Hardware

Output hardware provides results after data processing to the user. This result is taken from the main storage and fed to an output device. This may be a printer, in which case the information is automatically converted to a printed form called hard copy output, or alternatively, data may be displayed on a monitor screen similar to that used in a television set called softcopy output.

Processing Hardware

Instructions are obeyed and the necessary arithmetic operations are carried out on the data. The part of the processor is called the Arithmetic-Logical unit (ALU), although in reality, as for the control unit, there is often no physically separate component that performs this function. in addition to arithmetic, the processor also performs so-called logical operations. These operations take place at incredibly high speeds, e.g. several million numbers maybe sum up in less than a second.
The processor controls the operation of the computer. It fetches instructions from main storage, interprets them, and issues the necessary signals to the components making up the system. It directs all hardware operations necessary in obeying instructions. At one time most computers actually have a separate electronic unit, called the control unit, to perform the control function.

Storage Hardware

Data and instructions are stored in the storage and are held until needed to be worked on. The instructions dictate action to be taken on the data. Results of action will be held until they are required for output. Main memory is supplemented by less costly auxiliary storage, also called backing storage. e.g. hard disks for mass-storage purposes Backing storage services an important role in holding maintained data, i.e. data held by the computer so that it can provide information to the user when required.
Concept of Computer Architecture and Organization and Components of Computer System
The elements are shown in the above figure, which shows what is often referred to as the Logical Structure of the computer. Observe particularly the following points:
  1. Data normally flows from input devices or backing storage into main memory and form main memory to output devices or backing storage.
  2. The processor performs operations on data from the memory ad returns the results of processing to the memory.
  3. In some cases, data flows directly between the processor and input or output devices rather than as described in (1).
  4. The Arithmetic-Logical Unit (ALU) and Control Unit (CU), combine to form the processor. The processor is sometimes also called the central processor (CP) or central processing unit (CPU). However, the term CPU is also sometimes taken to mean not only the ALU and control unit but main storage too.
  5. There are two types of flow shown in the above figure. Solid lines carry data or instructions and broken lines carry commands or signals.
  6. Data held on backing storage may be input to main memory during processing, used and brought up-to-data using newly input data, and then returned to backing storage.

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