Computer Hardware

What is computer hardware?

Computer hardware consists of physical components includes the mechanical, magnetic, electronic, and electrical components that make up a computer system. It also includes the physical parts of a computer system. It also includes the physical parts of a computer system such as the monitor, keyboard, motherboard, random access memory cards, data storage devices, hard disk drive, mouse, central processing unit (CPU), graphics cards, sound cards, and the power supply cables. These are typically installed into a computer case, or attached to it by a cable or through a port.
Some QnA related to Computer Hardware || Understanding basic concepts

What is the function of the CPU?

The CPU is often called the brain of the computer and controls the functions of a computer. It is a microprocessor chip that does most of the data processing. It carries out each instruction of the program in sequence, to perform the basic arithmetical, logical, and input/output operations of the system. A computer can have more than one CPU; this is called multiprocessing. Some integrated circuits (ICs) can contain multiple CPUs on a single chip; those ICs are called multi-core processors.

What are the main components of a CPU?

The main components of a CPU are the arithmetic logic unit (ALU), which performs arithmetic and logical operation, and the control unit (CU), which extracts instructions from memory and decodes and executes them, calling on the ALU, when necessary.

When was the first microprocessor developed?

A microprocessor is a chip fabricated on an integrated circuit made of a tiny slice of silicon. The first microprocessor, Intel 4004, was developed in 1971 at intel, USA, on two-inch wafers compared to the 12-inch wafers commonly used for today’s products. The vacuum tubes were replaced by these chips, and computers became small enough to fit in a home. It was one of the smallest microprocessor designs that ever went into commercial production.

What is a monitor?

A monitor is a device that displays information or computer output in visual form, using text and graphics, and the portion that displays the same is called the screen. These monitors are of two types: Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) monitors and modern Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) monitors. Gradually, the LCD monitors are being replaced by light-emitting diode (LED) monitors that provide higher contrast and better viewing angles.

How does a keyboard work?

A keyboard is an output device with an arrangement of buttons or keys, which use switches and circuits to translate a person’s keystrokes into a signal the computer can understand. The inside of the keyboard consists of a processor and circuits. The keyboard’s processor contains a grid of circuits called a key matrix. Each circuit is broken at a point below each key. When a key is pressed, it presses a switch, completing the circuit and allowing a tiny amount of current flow through which causes a vibration called bounce, signaling the processor to read it. Most keyboards have between 80 to 110 keys, detailing typing keys, a numeric keypad, function keys, and control keys.

What is a motherboard?

A motherboard is the main printed circuit board (PCD) in a computer. It holds many of the crucial electronic components of the system, such as the central processing unit (CPU) and memory, and provides connectors for other peripherals. The components that can be attached to the motherboard include sound cards, video cards, network cards, TV tuner cards, hard drives, or other forms of persistent storage. A motherboard acts as the hub to which other computer devices connect.

What is a hard disk drive?

A hard disk drive is a sealed unit containing a number of platters in a stack. Electromagnetic read/write heads are placed above and below each platter. As the platters spin, the drive heads move in toward the center surface and out toward the edge. In this way, the drive heads can reach the entire surface of each platter. The HDD holds almost all of the programs and files including the operating system of the computer. Nowadays, external hard disks are also available.

What is a RAM?

RAM is a type of computer memory that can be accessed randomly, which means that any byte of memory can be accessed without touching the preceding bytes. Individual blocks of data can be stored or retrieved in any order rather than sequentially. Physically, it is a series of chips in a computer. When a computer is turned on, it loads data into the RAM. The RAM temporarily stores information that the CPU uses, while the computer is on. The information stored in the RAM is erased when the computer is turned off.

What is a computer mouse?

A computer mouse is a hand-operated electronic device that controls the coordinates of a cursor on your computer screen as you move it around on a pad. The most common standard features of a mouse are two buttons and a scroll wheel, which can also act as a third button. A computer mouse functions by detecting two-dimensional motion relative to its supporting surface. The mouse’s motion typically translates into the motion of a pointer on a display, which allows for fine control of a graphical user interface.

What are graphics cards and sound cards?

A graphics card, also known as a video card, is a hardware device installed inside a computer that connects a monitor to the computer and sends display information to the monitor. its GPU processes the data and changes it into a signal to the monitor. A sound card, also known as an audio card, is an expansion card or integrated circuit that lets the user hear, record, and playback sounds, either over speakers or headphones.

What is a webcam?

A webcam is a digital video camera that can be attached to a computer and is capable of downloading images in real-time to a computer for transmission over the Internet or other network. This camera also facilitates long-distance communication like video conferencing.

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