Information System

In this blog, we are about to discuss Information systems, their components, and their types. Before continuing the topic if you don’t know or want to know about system analyst, system development life cycle, and system development models then visit the links mentioned below.

An information system is a computer-based business system that provides the data-processing capabilities and information that an organization needs to be informed about various aspects of its operations.

Components of Information System

An information system contains the following six key components. The six components that must come together in order to produce an information system are discussed below in the must come together in order to produce an information system are discussed below in brief.
  • Hardware: The term hardware refers to machinery. This category includes the computer itself, which is often referred to as the central processing unit (CPU), and all of its support equipment. Among the support, equipment is input and output devices, storage devices, and communications devices.
  • Software: The term software refers to computer programs and the manuals (if any) that support them. Computer programs are machine-readable instructions that direct the circuitry within the hardware parts of the system to function in ways that produce useful information from data. Programs are generally stored on some input. output medium, often a disk or tape.
  • Data: Data are facts that are used by programs to produce useful information. Like programs, data are generally stored in machine-readable form on disk or tape until the computer needs them.
  • Procedures: Procedures are the policies that govern the operation of a computer system. “Procedures are to people what software is to hardware” is a common analogy that is used to illustrate the role of procedures in a system.
  • People: Every system needs people if it is to be useful. Often the most overlooked element of the system is the people, probably the component that most influences the success or failure of information systems. This includes “not only the users, but those who operate and service the computers, those who maintain the data, and those who support the network of computers.
  • Feedback: It is another component of the information system that defines it may be provided with feedback (Although this component isn’t necessary to function).
What is Information System? What are the types of Information System?

Types of Information System

An information system is a collection of hardware, software, data, people, and procedures that are designed to generate information that supports the day-to-day, short-range, and long-range activities of users in an organization. Information systems generally are classified into the following categories. They are:

Executive Support System (ESS)

An executive information system (EIS), also known as an executive support system (ESS), is a type of management information system that facilitates and supports senior executive information and decision-making needs. It provides easy access to internal and external information relevant to organizational goals. It is commonly considered a specialized form of decision support system. It emphasizes graphical display and easy-to-use user interfaces. They offer strong reporting and drill-down capabilities. In general, EIS is enterprise-wide DSS that helps top-level executives analyze, compare, and highlight trends in important variables so that they can monitor performance and identify opportunities and problems. EIS and data warehousing technologies are converging in the marketplace. The EIS is designed for the individual so it allows the organizational head such as CEOs to tie for different levels of the organization.

Transaction Processing System (TPS)

A transaction processing system (TPS) is an information system that captures and processes data generated during an organization’s day-to-day transactions. It is information processing data generated during an organization’s day-to-day transactions. It is information processing data generated during an organization’s day-to-day transactions. it is an information processing system for business transactions involving the collection, modification, and retrieval of all transaction data. Characteristics of a TPS include performance, reliability, and consistency. TPS is also known as transaction processing or real-time processing. A transaction is a business activity such as a deposit, payment, order, or reservation. Clerical staffs typically perform the activities associated with transaction processing, which include the following:
  • Recording a business activity such as a student’s registration, a customer’s order, an employee’s timecard, or a client’s payment.
  • Confirming an action or triggering a response, such as printing a student’s schedule, sending a thank-you note to a customer, generating an employee’s paycheck, or issuing a receipt to a client.
  • Maintaining data, which involves adding new data, changing existing data, or removing unwanted data.

Management Information System (MIS)

A management information system (MIS) focuses on the management of information systems to provide efficiency and effectiveness of strategic decision making. The concept may include systems termed transaction processing system, decision support system, expert system, or executive information system. The term is often used in the academic study of businesses and has connections with other areas, such as information systems, information technology, informatics, e-commerce, and computer science; as a result, the term is used interchangeably with some of these areas. Management information systems often are integrated with transaction processing systems.

Decision Support Systems (DSS)

A decision support system (DSS) is a computer-based information system that supports business or organizational decision-making activities. DSSs serve the management, operations, and planning levels of an organization (usually mid and higher management) and help people make decisions about problems that may be rapidly changing and not easily specified in advance – i.e. Unstructured and Semi-Structured decision problems. Decision support systems can be either fully computerized, human-powered, or a combination of both. It is an information system designed to help users reach a decision when a decision-making situation arises.

Expert Information System (EIS)

An expert information system is the latest type of information system that captures and stores the knowledge of human experts and then imitates human reasoning and decision-making processes for those who have less expertise. It is a computer system that emulates the decision-making ability of a human expert. Expert systems are designed to solve complex problems by reasoning about knowledge, represented primarily as if-then rules rather than through conventional procedural code. Expert information systems are composed of two main components: a knowledge base and interface rules. A knowledge base is the combined subject knowledge and experiences of human experts. The interface rules are a set of logical judgments applied to the knowledge base each time a user describes a situation to the expert system.

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  1. It?¦s truly a great and helpful piece of info. I?¦m glad that you shared this useful information with us. Please keep us informed like this. Thank you for sharing.

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