Artificial Intelligence

Concept of AI

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is usually defined as the science of making computers do things that require intelligence when done by humans. AI has had some success in limited or simplified domains. AI is associated with various fields of computer and other science-related field i.e. math, computer science psychology, etc. Simply AI is the study of making the computers do various things at a particular time by the people. It is the intelligence exhibited by machines. In computer science, an ideal “intelligent” machine is a flexible rational agent that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of success at an arbitrary goal.

Component of AI

There are various components of Artificial Intelligence. Some of them are described below.
Component of AI

a. Computer Science

Computer Science is the most important component of artificial intelligence. It is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and of practical techniques for their implementation and application in computer systems. Computer scientists invent algorithmic processes that create, describe, and transform information and formulate suitable abstractions to model complex systems.

b. Neuron Science

Neuron science is the scientific study of the nervous system. Traditionally, neuroscience has been seen as a branch of biology. However, it is currently an interdisciplinary science that collaborates with other fields such as chemistry, computer science, engineering, mathematics, medicine, philosophy, physics, and psychology. So, there is a direct linkage of Neuron Science with artificial intelligence.

c. Cognitive Science

Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary scientific study of minds as information processors. It includes research on how information is processed in faculties such as perception, language, reasoning, and emotion represented and transformed in a human or another animal nervous system or machine.

d. Psychology

Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Its immediate goal is to understand behavior and mental processes by researching and establishing both general benefit society. In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social scientist, behavioral scientist, or cognitive scientist.

e. Mathematics

It introduces the various types of algorithms and proofs. The various types of proofs and algorithms can be used to compute and find out the reasoning of uncertain information. In recent years AI has become more mathematical. AI researchers have been extracting neat techniques from their “scruffy” programs and formalizing them using mathematics. New uses are being found for mathematics in every area of AI and where existing mathematics is not up to the task, new kinds of mathematics are being invented. The Artificial Intelligence and Mathematics program aims to reflect these developments.

f. Sociology

The potential linkages between artificial intelligence and sociology are growing. This growth is due to the importation of artificial intelligence techniques into methodological tools for data analysis, a growing interest among researchers in artificial intelligence in the socially situated agent, and a growing interest among sociologists in using artificial intelligence techniques for theorizing about social phenomena. Increasingly, researchers are addressing concerns of traditional importance within sociology, such as the bases for cooperation, the role of structure in affecting the individual agency, and interaction using computational models of intelligent adaptive agents. This article provides an overview of the role that artificial intelligence currently plays within sociology.

Uses of AI

Artificial intelligence has been used in a wide range of fields including medical diagnosis, stock trading, robot control, law, scientific discovery, and toys. However, many AI applications are not perceived as AI. A lot of cutting-edge AI has filtered into general applications; often without being called AI because once something is many thousands of AI applications are deeply embedded in the infrastructure of every industry.

Some of the application areas of AI:

a. Entertainment:

With the help of AI, computer programmers develop various types of games such as chess, ludo, etc. While playing such games the player or user must know various alternatives to win the machine which is likely to be impossible by the normal persons.

b. Expert system

Expert system is such type of a software system with knowledge engineer which are designed in a computer program for carrying out some specific tasks in the various types of field such as engineering, computing, and medical field. To develop such types of program intellectual property the AI is used.

c. Robotics

In various developed countries Robotics are used to perform various tasks such as entertainment, risky job, and other daily operations. Robots usually contain and combine both high precision machine capabilities and sophisticated AI-based controlling software.

d. Understanding natural language

Natural languages are those languages that can be easily understood by any person. Nowadays scientists are going to develop such types of hardware, software, and other machinery tools which can understand by any type of person. These types of development are possible only through AI.

e. Speech and pattern recognition

Nowadays various types of machines are being developed which can understand human voice and skin. For example, nowadays the large numbers of offices are using such an attendance device that can recognize human fingers.

f. Vision systems

These systems understand, interpret, and comprehend visual input on the computer. For example. A spying airplane takes photographs, which are used to figure out spatial information or map of the areas. Similarly, doctors are a clinical expert system to diagnose the patient.

Ethical Aspect of AI

The ethics or ethical aspects of artificial intelligence are part of the ethics of technology specific to robots and other artificially intelligent beings. It is typically divided into robotics, a concern with the moral behavior of humans as they design, construct, use and treat. Artificially intelligent beings, and machine ethics, concern with the moral behavior of artificial moral agents (AMAs). The ethical aspects of AI are mainly concerned with the following.

a. Robot rights

Robot rights are the moral obligations of society towards its machines, similar to human rights or animal rights. These may include the right to life and liberty, freedom of thought and expression, and equality before the law. Experts disagree whether specific and detailed laws will be required soon or safely in the distant future.

b. The threat to privacy

AI program exists that can understand natural languages and speech with adequate processing power it could theoretically listen to every phone conversation and read every email in the world, understand them and report back to the program’s operators exactly what is said and exactly who is saying it. The question arises that An AI program like this could allow governments or other entities to efficiently suppress dissent and attack their enemies.

c. Machine ethics

Machine ethics (or machine morality) is the field of research that is concerned with designing Artificial Moral Agents (AMAs), robots, or artificially intelligent computers that behave morally or as through morals. Some experts and academics have questioned the use of robots for military combat, especially when such robots are given some degree of autonomous functions.

d. Unintended consequences

Many researchers have argued that by way of an “intelligence explosion” sometime in the next century, a self-improving AI could become so vastly more powerful than humans that we would not be able to stop it from achieving its goals. Unless moral philosophy provides us with a flawless ethical theory, an AI’s utility function could allow for many potentially harmful scenarios that conform with a given ethical framework but not “common sense”.

e. Ethics in fiction

The ethics of artificial intelligence in fiction is one of several core themes which explore the scenario of a civilization accidentally creating. AI through a rapid increase in computational power through a global scale of the neural network is an important issue of ethics. This even caused an ethical schism between those who felt bestowing organic rights.

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