Hello friends, in this article every one of you will get to know about what are the types of operating systems based on processing. There is a lot of operating systems based on processing. So, I will explain a brief introduction about every operating system.
What are the types of Operating System based on Processing? (Classification of OS based on Processing) - ComputeNepal

Classification of OS based on Processing

The following are the Operating Systems (OS) classified on the basis of processing.

1. Multiprogramming OS

A multiprogramming technique is used in the multi-user environment, and it is the technique in which multiple user programs are executed simultaneously by a single processor or CPU. Multiprogramming means when two or more programs are provided to the loaded programs once the portion of one program is executed, and then a portion of another program is executed, and so on. Thus, multiprogramming refers to the concurrent execution of several programs. The main purpose of multiprogramming is to increase the utilization of the computer and its resource. The multiprogramming technique is possible due to the very high processing speed of the CPU. The high processing speed of the CPU helps it to allocate its time to every program in a time-sharing mode, and in such a manner that the user feels that the CPU is working for a program only. In fact, the CPU works for each user’s programs in the given allocation of time, but as said this timesharing happens so fast that the user feels the CPU is working for a program, but in reality, the CPU is working for other programs also at the same time. Different forms of multiprogramming OS are multitasking, multiprocessing, and multi-user.

2. Multitasking OS

A multitasking OS allows more than one program to run concurrently mainly in a single user system. Multitasking computers are capable of executing several tasks or programs at the same multitasking systems, one of the processes is called the foreground (front panel or active) process and the others are called background (passive) processes. The foreground process is the one that accepts input from the user. Background processes cannot accept interactive input from a user, but they can access data stored on a disk and write the data to the video display. For example, some word processors print files in the background, enabling you to continue editing while files are being printed. This is called print Spooling (Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On-Line). In addition, many communications programs are designed to run in the background. background processes generally have a lower priority than foreground processes, so that they do not interfere with interactive applications.
Multitasking operating systems increase the productivity of users for the use of computers because users can execute many tasks, can compare the many outputs simultaneously, and even can exchange the values from a program to another. presently, most operating systems like MS Windows, Linux, Mac OS are multitasking operating systems.
There are two types of multitasking OS: Pre-emptive and co-operative. In pre-emptive multitasking, the OS allows CPU time slices to each program. in co-operative multitasking, each program can control the CPU for as long as it needs it. However, if the program is not using the CPU, it can allow another program to use it temporarily.

3. Multiprocessing OS

A multiprocessing system has more than one processor, linked together in a coordinated way. The multiprogramming OS is one, which supports running a program in more than one central processing unit (CPU). Server Systems and Super Servers are specially designed to support multiple processors. MVS ad UNIX are the two commonly used multiprocessing OS.

4. Distributed OS

The Distributed Operating System is referred to as a loosely coupled system that uses two or more independent computer systems via a communication link to serve multiple real-time applications and multiple users. It has its own OS and local memory. The processors in this system may vary in size and function. The processors communicate with one another through various communication lines such as high-speed buses or network connections. Data processing jobs are distributed among multiple computers. Various autonomous interconnected computers communicate with each other using a shared communication network. independent systems possess their own memory unit and CPU.

5. Network operating System

These systems run on a server and provide the capability to manage data, users, groups, security, applications, and other networking functions. These types of operating systems allow shared access of files, printers, security, applications, and other networking functions over a small private network. One more important aspect of Network Operating Systems is that all the users are well aware of the underlying configuration, of all other users within the network, their individual connections, etc. and that’s why these computers are popularly known as tightly coupled systems.

6. Time-Sharing System

Time-sharing is a form of multi-programmed OS that operates in an interactive mode with a quick response time. The user provides a request to the computer through a keyboard. The computer processes it and the response (output) is displayed on the user’s resources. Since each action or command takes a very small fraction of time, only a little CPU time is needed for each user. The CPU switches so rapidly from one user to another, that each user is given the impression that s/ he has his/ her own computer, while actually, it is one computer being shared among many users.

7. Multithreading OS

A program in execution (process) can be divided into multiple smaller sub-processes. These sub-processes are known as a thread. Multithreading OS has the ability to divide the process into threads and execute them concurrently. Threads are individual processes that execute simultaneously in multi-tasking OS. The programmer must carefully design the program in such as way that all the threads can run at the same time without interfering with each other. The real power of a multitasking system is realized when the underlying computer has multiple processors. Then, each processor can handle different tasks or different threads of execution for a single task. More processors can be added as necessary.

8. Batch processing OS

In the batch processing environment, it requires the grouping of similar jobs, which consists of programs, data, and system commands. It is also known as offline processing. This type of processing is suitable in programs with large computation time with no need for user interaction or involvement. For example, Payroll, forecasting, statistical analysis, and large scientific number-crunching programs. Users need not wait while the job is being processed. They can submit their programs to operators and collect them later. This means the jobs, entered, stored on a disk in a batch or queue, are executed one after another under the control of the OS. A job may wait in a batch for minutes or hours depending on the workload. Remote Job entry refers to batch processing where jobs are entered at a remote terminal and transmitted into the computer.

9. Online processing OS

In the online processing method, transactions are processed as soon as they happened and at the place of origin. it is quite simple compared to real-time processing. In this type of processing OS, users can interact or provide inputs during processing as well. The output is provided back to the users as soon as the processing is completed. It is a popular processing technique at present.

10. Real-time OS

The real-time processing method is one that controls the environment by receiving data, processing them, and taking action or returning results sufficiently quickly to affect the processing time is critical. The entire processing task has to be completed in a predefined time. The term real-time refers to the technique of updating files with the transaction data immediately after the event to which it relates, occur.

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